Article Periodicals » Materials Evaluation » Article
Laser Bond Testing

The use of controlled, localized stress waves in materials and bonded joints offers new opportunities for the characterization of structures. Bonded joints in particular benefit from this application because there is no nondestructive testing method to measure bond strength. Laser bond testing using a high peak power, short-pulse laser can perform a localized proof test of a bond. The method can be applied nondestructively to strong bonds but will fail a weak bond, creating an internal disbond detectable by the laser bond testing system itself or by post-test ultrasonic testing. To date, numerous tests have shown the method to be sensitive to weak bonds in carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite structural bonds created by poor adhesive mixing, improper surface preparation or contamination.

Adams, R.D. and P. Cawley, “A Review of Defect types and Nondestructive Testing Techniques for Composites and Bonded Joints,” NDT International, Vol. 21, 1988, pp. 208–222 Arrigoni, M., S. Kruger, Al Bouin, D. Levesque, M. Lord and J. Monchalin, “The Use of Laser Doppler Interferometry Based on a Fabry-Perot Etalon for Shock Adhesion Test Applied to Adhesively Bonded Materials,” 1st International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics: Science, Technology and Applications, Montreal, Canada, July 2008. Bossi, R.H., K.R. Housen and W.B. Shepherd, “Using Shock Loads to Measure Bonded Joint Strength,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 60, 2002, pp. 1333–1338. Bossi, R.H., K.R. Housen and W.B. Shepherd, “Application of Stress Waves to Bond Inspection,” SAMPE 2004, Long Beach, California, May 2004. Bossi, R., K. Housen and C. Walters, “Laser Bond Inspection Device for Composites: Has the Holy Grail Been Found?,” Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center, Vol. 30, 2005. Boustie, M., L. Berthe, T. de Resseguier and M. Arrigoni, “Laser Shock Waves: Fundamentals and Applications,” 1st International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics: Science, Technology and Applications, Montreal, Canada, July 16–18, 2008. Butler, Brian, “Composites Affordability Initiative Overview,” SME Westec, 24 March 2003. Cawley, P., T. Pialucha and M. Lowe, “A Comparison of Different Methods for the Detection of a Weak Adhesive/Adherend Interface in Bonded Joints,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 12B, D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti, eds., New York, Plenum Press, 1993, pp. 1531–1538. Dickstein, P., Y. Segal, E. Segal and A.N. Sinclar, “Statistical Pattern Recognition Techniques: A Sample Problem of Ultrasonic Determination of Interfacial Weakness in Adhesive Joints,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 8, 1989, pp. 27–35. Gupta, V., J. Yuan and A. Pronin, “Nanosecond Rise-Time Stress Pulses Using Lasers for Applications to Material Characterization,” Proceedings of the AMD Symposium on Experimental Techniques in the Dynamics of Deformable Solids, Vol. 165, 1993, pp. 61–70. Hagemaier, D., “Adhesive-Bonded Joints,” Adhesive Bonding of Aluminum Alloys, E.W. Thrall and R.W. Shannon, eds., New York, Marcel Dekker, 1985, pp. 337–423. Hart-Smith, L.J., D. Brown and S. Wong, “Surface Preparations for Ensuring that the Glue Will Stick in Bonded Composite Structure,” 10th DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, November 1993, Paper MDC 93K0126. Kinloch, A.J., Adhesion and Adhesives: Science and Technology, London, Chapman and Hall, 1987. Roach, Dennis and Joe DiMambro, “Enhanced Inspection Methods to Characterize Bonded Joints: Moving Beyond Flaw Detection to Quantify Adhesive Strength,” Air Transport Association NDT Forum, Ft. Worth, Texas, October 2006. Rokhlin, S.I., M. Hefets and M. Rosen, “An Ultrasonic Interface-Wave Method for Predicting the Strength of Adhesive Bonds,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 52, 1981, pp. 2847–2851. Rokhlin, S.I., L. Adler and A. Hamilton, “Quality Assurance of Composite Bonding Processes with Angle Bean Ultrasonic Spectroscopy (ABUS),” SAMPE 2005, Long Beach, California, 2005. Smith, R., V. Weise and R. Dalton, “Potential Advanced Ultrasonic Methods for Detection of Weak Adhesion,” NDT 2003: 42nd Annual Conference of the British Institute for NDT, 2003. Wanthal, Steve, “The Composites Affordability Initiative – Phase 3 Overview,” SAMPE 2006, November 2006. Wegman, R. and J.R. Mitchell, “Evaluation of Adhesive Bond Strength by Nondestructive Testing,” 21st International SAMPE Technical Conference, Vol. 21, 1989, pp. 196–209. Yuan, J. and V. Gupta, “Measurement of Interface Strength by the Modified Laser Spallation Technique,” Journal of Applied Physics, 74, 1993, pp. 2388– 2410.
Usage Shares
Total Views
96 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage