Recent developments in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) models have brought about
complex electromagnetic fields due to the fine variations of structures. Therefore, it has
become necessary to use more accurate analysis including environmental characteristics,
antennas, and interpretation of the raw data in three-dimensional space. Such analyses
require numerical techniques by which problems having complex scattering properties
can be solved as accurately and as fast as possible. Some methods had been developed
for resolution of specific problems involving differential or integral equations. However,
each technique has limitations and trade-offs. The research work presented in this article
aims to develop electromagnetic wave-propagation models in concrete structures using
different numerical techniques to investigate the detection and location of buried objects.
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