Modeling the Response of Ultrasonic Reference Reflectors

Reference reflectors characterized as flat-bottom hole (FBH), side-drilled hole (SDH), and spherical void (SPH) are commonly used in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for calibration purposes. Here the measurement models currently available to simulate the A-scan response from those types of reference reflectors are examined. Measurement models suitable for both large and small reflectors are described and used to study the effect of beam variations over the surface of the reflector. The adequacy of the Kirchhoff approximation for predicting the waves scattered by these reference reflectors is also studied by comparing the results of that approximation to those obtained from more exact scattering solutions. The waveforms predicted by these various models are compared with experimentally determined responses in a pulse-echo immersion setup, and the accuracy of the models is discussed.

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