Article Periodicals » Materials Evaluation » Article
Time-Delay Estimation of Ultrasonic Testing Signals by a Combination of Cross Correlation and Response Surface Method

Most ultrasonic testing applications are based on the measurement of time delay of received echoes. One popular technique for time-delay estimation is the cross-correlation technique. Various techniques are currently being used to improve the performance of cross-correlation. In this paper, the response surface method (RSM) is used to improve the accuracy of the cross-correlation technique in measuring the time delay of ultrasonic echoes, in particular at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). To demonstrate the ability of RSM, we have applied the technique to modeled signals having different SNRs. The results are then compared with other commonly used techniques, such as interpolation. It is concluded that RSM could be a good candidate for improving the results obtained by the cross-correlation technique.


Demirli, R., and J. Saniie,, 2001, “Model-Based Estimation of Ultrasonic Echoes Part I: Analysis and Algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 787–802.

Honarvar, F., F. Salehi, V. Safavi, A. Mokhtari, and A.N. Sinclair, 2013, “Ultrasonic Monitoring of Erosion/Corrosion Thinning Rate in Industrial Piping System,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 1251–1258.

Jacovitti, G., and G. Scarano, 1993, “Discrete Time Techniques for Time Delay Estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 525–533.

Lai, X., and H. Torp, 1999, “Interpolation Methods for Time-Delay Estimating Using Cross-Correlation Method for Blood Velocity Measure-ment,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonic, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 277–290.

Montgomery, D.C., and G.C. Runger, 2003, Applied Statistics and Proba-bility for Engineers, third edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Nandi, A.K., 1995, “On the Subsample Time Delay Estimation of Narrow-band Ultrasonic Echoes,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonic, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 993–1001.

Pantea, C., D.G. Rickel, A. Migliori, R.G. Leisure, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. El-Khatib, and B. Li, 2005, “Digital Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Overlap System and Algorithm for Unambiguous Determination of Pulse Transit Time,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, No. 11, doi: 10.1063/1.2130715.

Tamim, N.S.M., and F. Ghani, 2009, “Hilbert Transform of FFT Pruned Cross-Correlation Function for Optimization in Time Delay Estimation,” Proceedings of the IEEE 9th Malaysia International Conference on Communications, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Zahiri-Azar, R., and S.E. Salcudean, 2008, “Time-Delay Estimation in Ultrasound Echo Signals Using Individual Sample Tracking,” IEEE Trans-actions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 55, No. 12, pp. 2640–2650.

Zahiri Azar, R., O. Goksel, and S.E. Salcudean, 2010, “Sub-Sample Displacement Estimation From Digitized Ultrasound RF Signals Using Multi-Dimensional Polynomial Fitting of the Cross-Correlation Function,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 57, No. 11, pp. 2403–2420.

Zhang, L., and X. Wu, 2005, “On Cross-Correlation Based Discrete Time Delay Estimation,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustic, Speech, and Signal Processing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Zhang, L., and X. Wu, 2006, “On the Application of Cross-Correlation Function to Subsample Discrete Time Delay Estimation,” Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 682–694.

Usage Shares
Total Views
11 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage