In this study, the authors investigate the use of conductive concrete to enhance nondestructive evaluation (NDE) capabilities. Preliminary results have shown that a conductive concrete can facilitate the utilization of an eddy current technique, in which damages in a conductive specimen were easier to detect compared with a nonconductive substrate. While such results demonstrated the promise of using conductive concrete to facilitate and potentially accelerate the NDE process, the fabrication of a homogeneous conductive concrete is technically or economically challenging, depending on the conductive filler used in the process. In this paper, the authors propose a new cementitious composite to accelerate NDE. The composite uses inexpensive carbon black particles and a block-copolymer. The purpose of the block copolymer, a styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS), is to facilitate the creation of conductive chains, therefore reducing the necessary concentration of conductive filler required to achieve electrical percolation. Several cementitious composite specimens of various concentrations of carbon black particles were fabricated, and results show that the utilization of SEBS reduced the electrical percolation threshold by approximately 50%, with a gain on electrical conductivity relative to a nonconductive specimen mix of approximately 33%. Strain-sensing tests also demonstrated that SEBS-based specimens have good sensing properties, but lag behind those of conductive concrete specimens fabricated with carbon black only.
Al-Saleh, M.H., and U. Sundararaj, 2008, “An Innovative Method to Reduce Percolation Threshold of Carbon Black Filled Immiscible Polymer Blends,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 284–293.
Chan, W.W.J., and C.M.L. Wu, 2000, “Durability of Concrete with High Cement Replacement,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 865–879.
D’Alessandro, A., M. Rallini, F. Ubertini, A. Materazzi, J. Kenny, and S. Laflamme, 2015a, “A Comparative Study between Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Nanofibers as Nanoinclusions in Self-sensing Concrete,” Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Nanotechnology, 27–30 July 2015, Rome, Italy, pp. 698–701.
D’Alessandro, A., F. Ubertini, S. Laflamme, and A.L. Materazzi, 2015b, “Towards Smart Concrete for Smart Cities: Recent Results and Future Application of Strain-sensing Nanocomposites,” Journal of Smart Cities, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3–14.
Galao, O., F. Baeza, E. Zornoza, and P. Garcés, 2014, “Strain and Damage Sensing Properties on Multifunctional Cement Composites with CNF Admixture,” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 46, pp. 90–98.
Gubbels, F., R. Jérôme, P. Teyssié, E. Vanlathem, R. Deltour, A. Calderone, V. Parenté, and J.-L. Brédas, 1994, “Selective Localization of Carbon Black in Immiscible Polymer Blends: A Useful Tool to Design Electrical Conductive Composites,” Macromolecules, Vol. 27, No. 7, pp. 1972–1974.
Huang, J.-C., 2002, “Carbon Black Filled Conducting Polymers and Polymer Blends,” Advances in Polymer Technology, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 299–313.
International Atomic Energy Agency, 2002, Guidebook on Non-destructive Testing of Concrete Structures, IAEA-TCS-17, Training Course Series No. 17, Vienna, Austria.
Laflamme, S., I. Pinto, H.S. Saleem, M. Elkashef, K. Wang, and E. Cochran, 2015, “Conductive Paint-filled Cement Paste Sensor for Accelerated Percolation,” SPIE Proceedings Volume 9437, Structural Health Monitoring and Inspection of Advanced Materials, Aerospace, and Civil Infrastructure 2015, 943722, doi: 10.1117/12.2084408.
Laflamme, S., H.S. Saleem, B.K. Vasan, R.L. Geiger, D. Chen, M.R. Kessler, and K. Rajan, 2013, “Soft Elastomeric Capacitor Network for Strain Sensing over Large Surfaces,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 1647–1654.
Li, H., H.-G. Xiao, and J.-P. Ou, 2006, “Effect of Compressive Strain on Electrical Resistivity of Carbon Black-Filled Cement-Based Composites,” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 824–828.
Lourie, O., D.M. Cox, and H.D. Wagner, 1998, “Buckling and Collapse of Embedded Carbon Nanotubes,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 81, No. 8,
Masadeh, S., 2015, “The Effect of Added Carbon Black to Concrete Mix on Corrosion of Steel in Concrete,” Journal of Minerals and Materials Charac-terization and Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 271–276.
Materazzi, A.L., F. Ubertini, and A. D’Alessandro, 2013, “Carbon Nanotube Cement-based Transducers for Dynamic Sensing of Strain,” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 37, No.1, pp. 2–11.
McCarter, W.J., G. Starrs, and T.M. Chrisp, 2000, “Electrical Conductivity, Diffusion, and Permeability of Portland Cement-Based Mortars,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30, No. 9, pp. 1395–1400.
Thomas, B.S., R.C. Gupta, and V.J. Panicker, 2016, “Recycling of Waste Tire Rubber as Aggregate in Concrete: Durability-Related Performance,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 112, pp. 504–513.
Ubertini, F., A.L. Materazzi, A. D’Alessandro, and S. Laflamme, 2014,
“Natural Frequencies Identification of a Reinforced Concrete Beam using Carbon Nanotube Cement-based Sensors,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 60, pp. 265–275.
Tumidajski, P.J., P. Xie, M. Arnott, and J.J. Beaudoin, 2003, “Overlay Current in a Conductive Concrete Snow Melting System,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, No. 11, pp. 1807–1809.
Wen, S., and D.D.L. Chung, 1999, “Piezoresistivity in Continuous Carbon Fiber Cement-Matrix Composite,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 445–449.
Wu, S., L. Mo, Z. Shui, and Z. Chen, 2005, “Investigation of the Conduc-tivity of Asphalt Concrete Containing Conductive Fillers,” Carbon, Vol. 43, No. 7, pp. 1358–1363.
Yehia, S.A., and C.Y. Tuan, 2000, “Thin Conductive Concrete Overlay for Bridge Deck Deicing and Anti-icing,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 1698, No. 1, pp. 45–53.
23 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares