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Microwave and Millimeter Wave Nondestructive Testing Principles

The nondestructive testing (NDT) toolbox is made up of a number of standard and commonly used techniques and methods, including electromagnetic testing, ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing, radiographic testing, acoustic emission testing, and liquid penetrant testing. Each technique/method possesses its own unique physics-or applications-based limitations while providing certain specific advanta-geous and desirable features. Microwave and millimeter waves occupy the frequency spectrum covering ~300 MHz to 30 GHz and 30 to 300 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths (in air) of 1000 to 1 mm (39 to 0.04 in.), respectively. Materials interact with these waves in ways that make them extremely useful for certain NDT applications (Kharkovsky and Zoughi 2007; Case and Kenderian 2017). Much has taken place in advancing microwave and millimeter wave techniques over the past three decades (Zoughi 1995). The unique features and capabilities offered by these NDT techniques, along with the sustained research and development efforts in this area, have brought microwave testing (MW) to its rightful place in the NDT toolbox as a viable, recognized method (Case and Kenderian 2017).

References

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