A New Nomogram Proposal to Determine Concrete Compressive Strength by Combined Nondestructive Testing Methods

Concrete is the most widely used construction material in contemporary construction technology. In particular, it holds an important place in the building industry in the world. Since concrete is a nonhomogeneous material, determining the strength of concrete accurately is quite difficult. In this respect, to check the mechanical properties of concrete in-situ, nondestructive test (NDT) methods can be used. They are useful as they do not damage concrete; however, these test results are sometimes deceptive. To reduce these deceptive results, destructive test methods were proposed to increase the accuracy of nondestructive methods. The objective of this study is to determine the strength of concrete with different characteristic strengths using destructive and NDT methods, and to establish new relationships between the compressive strength of concrete and Schmidt rebound values, and ultrasonic wave velocities. For this purpose, 101 concrete cube samples were prepared. After 7 and 28 days of curing, Schmidt rebound and ultrasonic wave velocity tests were applied as NDT methods. New formulations and graphs were established by carrying out a multiple regression analysis between the ultrasonic wave velocities, Schmidt rebound values, and compressive strengths. Thus, a new combined NDT method was developed with a nomogram. Furthermore, the applicability and accuracy of the formula and graph obtained were investigated by comparing the results of core samples from existing structures. The most important findings obtained from the study are summarized below. The concrete strength can be determined with nondestructive formulas obtained with an accuracy of 85%. High strength concrete cube samples are obtained in-house with 1.6% deviation, and core samples in-situ can be obtained with 7.3% deviation with the newly developed NDT nomogram. These test results show that the newly developed NDT formulas in this study are a very good alternative for determining concrete strength in-situ.

  1. U. Ersoy. Fundamental Principles and Carrying Capacity Calculation of Reinforced Concrete. Evrim Printery, Ankara, Turkey (1987).
  2. S. Yazıcı, A. B. Goktepe, S. Altun, and V. Karaman. Eng. Faculty Sci. and Eng. J. 8 (1):119–128 (2006).
  3. M. S. Akman. Construction Materials, No. 1408, p. 162. Istanbul Technical University, Civil Faculty Printery, Istanbul, Turkey (1990).
  4. T. Y. Erdogan. Concrete. METU Printery, Ankara, Turkey (2012).
  5. A. M. Neville. Properties of Concrete. Pearson Printery, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow Essex, England (1981).
  6. B. Hobbs and M. T. Kebir. Forensic Sci. Int. 167:167–172 (2007).
  7. H. Toutanji. Mat. Struct. 33:207–215 (2000).
  8. H. Y. Qasrawi and I. A. Marie. Cem. Concr. Res. 33:2017–2021 (2003).
  9. B.S.1881-203. British Standards Institution (1986).
  10. J. H. Bungey, S. G. Millard, and M. Grantham. Testing of Concrete in Structures. 4th ed. Taylor & Francis, New York (2006).
  11. A. M. T. Hassan and S. W. Jones. Construction and Building Materials 35:361–367 (2012).
  12. V. M. Malhotra and N. J. Carino. Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete. 2nd ed. CRC Press, W. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania (2004).
  13. H. A. Mesbah, M. Lachemi, and P. C. Aitcin. ACI Mater. J. 99:37–41 (2002).
  14. X. Jin and Z. Li. ACI Mater. J. 98:365–370 (2001).
  15. G. Washer, P. Fuchs, B. A. Graybeal, and J. L. Hartmann. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Frequency Control 51:193–201 (2004).
  16. H. Hertz. J. Reine Angew Math. 5:12–23 (1881).
  17. K. Szilágyi, A. Borosnyói, and I. Zsigovics. Construction and Building Materials 25:2480–2487 (2011).
  18. A. Szymanski and J. M. Szymanski. Hardness Estimation of Minerals, Rocks and Ceramic Materials. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1989).
  19. B. G. Skramtajew. J. Am. Concr. Inst. 9:285–303 Proceedings in vol. 34 (1938).
  20. E. Schmidt. Schweiz Bauztg 68:378–379 (1950). (in German).
  21. ASTM C597. Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity through Concrete, Annual Book of ASTM Standards. (1994).
  22. TS EN 12504-2. Testing Concrete in Structures. Part 2: Non-Destructive Testing: Determination of Rebound Number. Turkish Standardization Institute, Ankara (2013).
  23. TS EN 12504-4. Testing Concrete. Part 4: Determination of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity. Turkish Standardization Institute, Ankara (2012).
  24. TS EN 12504-1. Testing Concrete in Structures. Part 1: Cored Specimens: Taking, Examining and Testing in Compression. Turkish Standardization Institute, Ankara (2010).
  25. TS EN 12390-3 Testing Hardened Concrete. Part 3: Compressive Strength of Test Specimens. Turkish Standardization Institute, Ankara, 2010.
  26. ASTM C805. Standars Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete, Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Turkish Standardization Institute, Ankara, Turkey (1994).
  27. EN 13791. Assessment of in-situ compressive strength in structures and precast concrete components. Euronorm (2010).
  28. U. Bellander. Concrete Strength in Finished Structures: Part 3, NDT Methods, Investigations in Laboratuary and in-Situ. CBI Research 3:77, Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute (1977). 16 Ş. BİNGÖL AND A. ÇAVDAR
  29. Instruction for Using C.S.I., Concrete Tester, Operation Manual for Ultrasonic Concrete Tester. (2009).
  30. R. Giacchetti and L. Lacquaniti. Nota Tecnica 04, 1980, Universita` di Ancona, Facolta` di Ingegneria, Istituto di Scienza e Tecnica delle Costruzioni (1980). (in Italian).
  31. A. Di Leo and G. Pascale. Proceedings of the Conference on Nondestructive Testing and Quality System for Reliability and Safety of Civil Structures, Bologna, SAIE ‘94, 21 October 1994. (in Italian).
  32. J. Gasparik. Quaderno Didattico. A.I.P.N.D. Brescia (1992). (in Italian).
  33. Regione Toscana, Istruzioni Tecniche: Criteri per lo Svolgimento di Indagini Diagnostiche Finalizzate alla Valutazione della Qualita dei Materiali in Edifici Esistenti in Cemento Armato. Stampa Litografia della Giunta Regionale Via di Novoli, Firenze (2004). (in Italian).
  34. L. Nobile. Meccanica 50:411–417 (2015).
Usage Shares
Total Views
19 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage