This article describes the main elements of a new inspection system for the detection of transverse and longitudinal discontinuities in railheads. The system is based on ultrasonic guided waves, generated and detected in a noncontact manner through air-coupled transducers. The main drawback of using air-coupled transducers on steel rails is the significant energy loss that occurs at the air-steel interfaces. Finite element analyses were carried out to verify the feasibility for using such air-coupled ultrasonic coupling to detect internal discontinuities in this manner. In order to improve the inherently low signal-to-noise ratio of the air-coupled measurements, the prototype uses a statistical analysis based on multivariate outlier detection that normalizes the measurements for the normal “baseline” of the rail that is being tested. The discontinuity detection results from four runs conducted at low speed during the first field test of the prototype at the Transportation Technology Center in Pueblo, Colorado, were quite encouraging, as they showed good sensitivity of the system to the discontinuities within the tested track. At the current stage of development, the system can be seen as a complement to existing rail inspection technologies to increase their discontinuity detection reliability.
Alers, G.A., 1988, “Railroad Rail Flaw Detection System Based on Electro-magnetic Acoustic Transducers,” US Department of Transportation Report DOTIFRA/ORD-88/09.
Alers, G.A., and A. Manzanares, 1990, “Use of Surface Skimming SH Wave to Measure Thermal and Residual Stress in Installed Railroad Tracks,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 9, p. 1757.
Alleyne, D., and P. Cawley, 1991, “A Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Method for the Measurement of Propagating Multimode Signals,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 1159–1168.
Anon, F., 1990, “Rail-flaw Detection. A Science that Works,” Railway Track and Structures, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 30–32.
Barnett, V., and T. Lewis, 1994, Outliers in Statistical Data, 3rd edition, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Bartoli, I., F. Lanza di Scalea, M. Fateh, and E. Viola, 2005, “Modeling Guided Wave Propagation with Application to the Long-range Defect Detection in Railroad Tracks,” Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation (NDT & E) International, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 325–334.
Berenger, J., 1994, “A Perfectly Matched Layer for the Absorption of Elec-tromagnetic Waves,” Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 114, No. 2, pp. 185–200.
Cannon, D.F., K.-O. Edel, S.L. Grassie, and K. Sawley, 2003, “Rail Defects: An Overview,” Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, Vol. 26, No. 10, pp. 865–886.
Coccia, S., R. Phillips, I. Bartoli, S. Salamone, P. Rizzo, and F. Lanza di Scalea, 2012, “On-line High-speed Rail Defect Detection - part II,” Report No. DOT/FRA/ORD-12/02, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, D.C.
Drozdz, M., L. Moreau, M. Castaings, M.J.S. Lowe, and P. Cawley, 2005, “Efficient Numerical Modelling of Absorbing Regions for Boundaries of Guided Waves Problems,” AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 820, No. 1, pp. 126–133.
FRA Office of Safety Analysis, 2015, “Train Accidents due to Rail, Joint Bar and Rail Anchoring Defects,” http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety /default.aspx.
Garcia, G., and J. Zhang, 2006, “Application of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Rail Flaw Inspection,” Technical Report DOT/FRA/ORD-06/17, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, D.C.
Givoli, D., and J.B. Keller, 1990, “Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions for Elastic Waves,” Wave Motion, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 261–279.
Kenderian, S., B.B. Djordjevic, D. Cerniglia, and G. Garcia, 2006, “Dynamic Railroad Inspection Using the Laser-air Hybrid Ultrasonic Technique,” Insight-Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 336–341.
Lanza di Scalea, F., 2007, “Chapter 15, Part 2: Ultrasonic Testing in the Railroad Industry,” Nondestructive Testing Handbook, third edition: Vol. 7: Ultrasonic Testing, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH, pp. 535–552.
Lanza di Scalea, F., S. Coccia, I. Bartoli, S. Salamone, and P. Rizzo, 2014, “Defect Detection In Objects Using Statistical Approaches,” US Patent No. 8626459.
LSTC, 2014, LS-DYNA Keyword User’s Manual Volume I: revision 5471, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA.
Lowe, M.J.S., P. Cawley, J.-Y. Kao, and O. Diligent, 2002, “The Low Frequency Reflection Characteristics of the Fundamental Antisymmetric Lamb Wave a0 from a Rectangular Notch in a Plate,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 112, No. 6, pp. 2612–2622.
Mariani, S., T.V. Nguyen, R.R. Phillips, P. Kijanka, F. Lanza di Scalea, W.J. Staszewski, M. Fateh, and G. Carr, 2013, “Non-contact Air-coupled Ultra-sonic Guided Wave Inspection of Rails,” Structural Health Monitoring, Vol. 12, No. 5–6, pp. 539–548.
Mariani, S., T. Nguyen, X. Zhu, and F. Lanza di Scalea, 2017, “Field Test Performance of Noncontact Ultrasonic Rail Inspection System,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems, Vol. 143, No. 5, 04017007.
Mariani, S., and F. Lanza di Scalea, 2017, “Predictions of Defect Detection Performance of Air-coupled Ultrasonic Rail Inspection System,” Structural Health Monitoring, doi: 10.1177/1475921717715429.
NTSB, 2003, Report HZM-94/01, National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C.
NTSB, 2008, Report RAB-08/05, National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C.
Palmer, S.B., S. Dixon, R.S. Edwards, and X. Jian, 2005, “Transverse and Longitudinal Crack Detection in the Head of Rail Tracks Using Rayleigh Wave-Liked Wideband Guided Ultrasonic Waves,” Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring of Aerospace Materials, Composites and Civil Infrastructure IV, SPIE 5767.
Pantano, A., and D. Cerniglia, 2008, “Simulation of Laser Generated Ultrasound with Application to Defect Detection,” Applied Physics A, Vol. 91, No. 3, pp. 521–528.
Qi, Q., and T.L. Geers, 1998, “Evaluation of the Perfectly Matched Layer for Computational Acoustics,” Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 139, No. 1, pp. 166–183.
Rizzo, P., S. Coccia, I. Bartoli, and F. Lanza di Scalea, 2009, “Chapter 145: Non-Contact Rail Monitoring by Ultrasonic Guided Waves,” Encyclopedia of Structural Health Monitoring, C. Boller, F. Chang and Y. Fujino, eds., Chichester, Johns Wiley & Sons, pp. 2397–2410.
Rose, J.L., C.M. Lee, T.R. Hay, Y. Cho, and I.K. Park, 2006, “Rail Inspec-tion with Guided Waves,” Proceedings of the 12th Asia-Pacific Conference on NDT, Aukland, New Zealand.
Saadat, S., A. Rolin, S. Radzevicius, L. Al-Nazer, and G. Carr, 2012, “Devel-opment of a Portable Internal 3D Rail Flaw Imaging System,” Proceedings of the 2012 ASME Joint Rail Conference, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 1–6.
Sperry Rail Service, 1968, Rail Defect Manual, Sperry Division of Automation Industries, Inc., Danbury, CT.
Thompson, L.L., and R. Huan, 2000, “Implementation of Exact Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions in the Finite Element Method for the Time-dependent Wave Equation,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 187, No. 1–2, pp. 137–159.
Viktorov, I.A., 1967, Rayleigh and Lamb Waves: Physical Theory and Applications, Springer, Boston, MA.
Witte, M., and A. Poudel, 2016, “High-speed Rail Flaw Detection Using Phased Array Ultrasonics,” TTCI Technology Digest TD-16-030, July 2016.
Wooh, S.-C., 2001, “Flaw Detection System Using Acoustic Doppler Effect,” U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Patent No. 6324912.
Wooh, S.-C., C.C. Kim, and C. Wei, 1999, “Real-time Processing of Continuous Doppler Signals for High-Speed Monitoring of Rail Tracks,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, eds. D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti, Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 2245–2252.
Worden, K., 1997, “Structural Fault Detection Using a Novelty Measure,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 201, No. 1, pp. 85–101.
144 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares