Article Periodicals » Materials Evaluation » Article
Using Ultrasonic and Finite Element for Residual Stress Evaluation of a Gas Transmission Pipeline

Once weld-induced residual stresses are mitigated, the risk of catastrophic failures in gas transmission pipelines is expected to decrease. Large-diameter pipelines are used extensively for gas transmission between cities. In large-diameter pipes, it is normal procedure to employ two or three welders working simultaneously to complete the joint. However, the number of welders, as well as the delay time, can influence the welding residual stress, which is considered in this paper. To this end, five welds completed with different welding procedures have been investigated on a large-diameter, 610 mm gas transmission pipeline. The welding residual stresses were measured using the ultrasonic method, a nondestructive stress measurement technique that works based on the acoustoelasticity law. The finite element method was also employed for modeling of the specimens in order to numerically validate the measurements. The results show that employing four welders welding simultaneously on a 610 mm diameter pipeline can considerably reduce the welding residual stress in comparison with a case of using one or two welders. Furthermore, a delay time between starting the segmental welding can create a preheating effect that leads to mitigation in the residual stresses.


ASME, 2016, “ASME B31.8: Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems,” The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York City, New York.

Barrera, O., and A.C.F. Cocks, 2013, “Computational Modelling of Hydrogen Embrittlement in Weld Joints of Subsea Oil and Gas Compo-nents,” ASME 2013 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Nantes, France, doi: 10.1115/OMAE2013-10119.

Bray, Don E., 2013, “Chapter 10: Ultrasonics,” in Practical Residual Stress Measurement Methods, ed. Gary S. Schajer, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Hoboken, New Jersey, pp. 259–277.

Crecraft, D.I., 1967, “The Measurement of Applied and Residual Stresses in Metals using Ultrasonic Waves,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 5., No. 1, pp. 173–192.

Dowling, A.R., J.K. Sharples, and P.J. Budden, 2000, “An Overview of R6 Revision 4,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP, Vol. 423, pp. 33–37.

Egle, D.M., and D.E. Bray, 1976, “Measurement of Acoustoelastic and Third-Order Elastic Constants for Rail Steel,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 60, No. 3, doi: 10.1121/1.381146.

Goldak, J.A., 2017, VrWeld, Goldak Technologies, Inc., Ottawa, Canada, accessed at on 1 March 2017.

Goldak, J.A., and M. Asadi, 2010, “Challenges in Verification of CWM Software to Compute Residual Stress and Distortion in Welds,”ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division/K-PVP Conference, Bellevue, Washington.

Goldak, J.A., A. Chakravarti, A., and M.J. Bibby, 1984, “A New Finite Element Model for Welding Heat Sources,” Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 299–305.

Goldak, J., and M. Akhlaghi, 2005, Computational Welding Mechanics, Springer US, New York City, New York.

Henwood, C., M. Bibby, J. Goldak, D. Watt, 1988, “Coupled Transient Heat Transfer—Microstructure Weld Computations (Part B),” Acta Metal-lurgica, Vol. 36., No. 11, pp. 3037–3046.

Hibbit, H.D., and P.V. Marcal, 1973, “A Numerical, Thermo-Mechanical Model for the Welding and Subsequent Loading of a Fabricated Structure,” Computers & Structures, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 1145–1174.

Hughes, D.S., and J.L. Kelly, 1953, “Second-Order Elastic Deformation of Solids,” Physical Review, Vol. 92, No. 5, pp. 1145–1149.

Javadi, Y., M. Akhlaghi, and M.A. Najafabadi, 2013b, “Using Finite Element and Ultrasonic Method to Evaluate Welding Longitudinal Residual Stress through the Thickness in Austenitic Stainless Steel Plates,” Materials and Design, Vol. 45, pp. 628–642.

Javadi, Y., and M. Ashoori, 2015, “Sub-Surface Stress Measurement of Cross Welds in a Dissimilar Welded Pressure Vessel,” Materials and Design, Vol. 85, pp. 82–90.

Javadi, Y., K. Azari, S.M. Ghalehbandi, and M.J. Roy, 2017, “Comparison Between Using Longitudinal and Shear Waves in Ultrasonic Stress Meas-urement to Investigate the Effect of Post-Weld Heat-Treatment on Welding Residual Stresses,” Research in Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 101–122.

Javadi, Y., and S. Hatef Mosteshary, 2017, “Evaluation of Sub-Surface Residual Stress by Ultrasonic Method and Finite-Element Analysis of Welding Process in a Monel Pressure Vessel,” Journal of Testing and Evalu-ation, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 441–451.

Javadi, Y., and S. Hloch, 2013, “Employing the LCR Waves to Measure Longitudinal Residual Stresses in Different Depths of a Stainless Steel Welded Plate,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2013, doi: 10.1155/2013/746187.

Javadi, Y., G.M. Krolczyk, and S. Hloch, 2016, “Evaluation of Hoop Residual Stress Variations in the Thickness of Dissimilar Welded Pipes by using the LCR Ultrasonic Waves,” Tehnicki Vjesnik (Technical Gazette), Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 329–335.

Javadi, Y., M.A. Najafabadi, and M. Akhlaghi, 2012, “Residual Stress Evalu-ation in Dissimilar Welded Joints using Finite Element Simulation and the LCR Ultrasonic Wave,” Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 48, No. 9, pp. 541–552.

Javadi, Y., M.A. Najafabadi, and M. Akhlaghi, 2013c, “Comparison Between Contact and Immersion Method in Ultrasonic Stress Measure-ment of Welded Stainless Steel Plates,” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 788–797.

Javadi, Y., H.S. Pirzaman, M.H. Raeisi, and M.A. Najafabadi, 2013a, “Ultra-sonic Inspection of a Welded Stainless Steel Pipe to Evaluate Residual Stresses through Thickness,” Materials and Design, Vol. 49, pp. 591–601.

Javadi, Y., H.S. Pirzaman, M.H. Raeisi, M.A. Najafabadi, 2014, “Ultrasonic Stress Evaluation through Thickness of a Stainless Steel Pressure Vessel,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vols. 123–124, pp. 111–120.

Leon-Salamanca, T., and D.F. Bray, 1996, “Residual Stress Measurement in Steel Plates and Welds using Critically Refracted Longitudinal (LCR) Waves,” Research in Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 169–184. 

Lindgren, L.-E., 2011, “2 – Understanding Welding Stress and Distortion Using Computational Welding Mechanics,” Minimization of Welding Distortion and Buckling: Modelling and Implementation, A Volume in Woodhead Publishing Series in Welding and Other Joining Technologies, pp. 22–78.

Masubuchi, K., O.W. Blodgett, S. Matsui, C.O. Ruud, and C.L. Tsai, 2001, “Chapter 7: Residual Stresses and Distortion,” Welding Handbook, 9th edition, Vol. 1, American Welding Society, Miami, Florida, pp. 297–356. 

Sadeghi, S., Y. Javadi, M.A. Najafabadi, and F. Tarlochan, 2015, “Comparison Between Contact and Immersion Ultrasonic Techniques to Evaluate Longitudinal Residual Stress in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Plates,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 73, No. 9, pp. 1214–1227.

Santos, A., and D. Bray, 2000, “Ultrasonic Stress Measurement Using PC Based and Commercial Flaw Detectors,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 71, No. 9, doi: 10.1063/1.1287339.

Sattari-Far, I., and Y. Javadi, 2008, “Influence of Welding Sequence on Welding Distortions in Pipes,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vol. 85, No. 4, pp. 265–274.

E., Schneider, 1997, “4 - Ultrasonic Techniques,” in Structural and Residual Stress Analysis by Nondestructive Methods: Evaluation, Application, Assess-ment, ed. Viktor Hauk, Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, pp. 522–563.

Simo, J.C., 1998, “Numerical Analysis and Simulation of Plasticity,” Handbook for Numerical Analysis, Vol. 6, eds. P. G. Ciarlet and J. J. Lions, Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Tanala, E., G. Bourse, M. Fremiot, and J.F. De Belleval, 1995, “Determina-tion of Near Surface Residual Stresses on Welded Joints using Ultrasonic Methods,” NDT & E International, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 83–88.

Watt, D.F., L. Coon, M. Bibby, J. Goldak, and C. Henwood, 1988, “An Algorithm for Modelling Microstructural Development in Weld Heat-Affected Zones (Part A) Reaction Kinetics,” Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 36, No. 11, pp. 3029–3035.

Usage Shares
Total Views
27 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage