Additive manufacturing (AM) presents unique challenges to the nondestructive testing community, not least in that it requires inspection of parts with complex forms that are not possible using subtrac-tive manufacturing. The drive to use AM for parts where design approaches include damage tolerance and retirement-for-cause with high quality and where safety criticality imposes new QA/QC requirements is growing. This article reviews the challenges faced to enable reliable inspection and characterization in metal powder-based AM processes, including issues due to geometric and microstructural features of interest, the limitation on existing and emerging NDT tech-niques, and remaining technology gaps. The article looks at inspection from powder to finished part, but focuses primarily on monitoring and characterization during the build. In-process, quantitative characterization and monitoring is anticipated to be transformational in advancing adoption of metal AM parts, including offering the potential for in-process repair or early part rejection during part fabrication.
ASTM, 2016, “ASTM International and ISO Unveil Framework for Global 3D Printing Standards,” ASTM Standardization News, accessed from astm.org/standardization-news/?q=outreach/astm-international-and-iso-unveil-framework-global-3d-printing-standards-nd16.html on 28 November 2017.
ASTM, 2018, “Committee F42 on Additive Manufacturing Technologies,” accessed from https://www.astm.org/COMMITTEE/F42.htm on 20 February 2018.
Barua, S., F. Liou, J. Newkirk, and T. Sparks, 2014, “Vision-based Defect Detection in Laser Metal Deposition Process,” Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 77–85.
Bauereiß, A., T. Scharowsky, and C. Körner, 2014, “Defect Generation and Propagation Mechanism during Additive Manufacturing by Selective Beam Melting,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 214, No. 11, pp. 2522–2528.
Baumers, M., L. Beltrametti, A. Gasparre, and R. Hague, 2017, “Informing Additive Manufacturing Technology Adoption: Total Cost and the Impact of Capacity Utilisation,” International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 55, No. 23, pp. 6957–6970.
Bigelow, T.A., 2017, “Ultrasound Based In-line Assessment of Porosity for Laser-Sintered Parts,” Iowa State University, National Science Foundation Standard Grant, Award Number 1661146.
Bond, L.J., J.N. Gray, F.J. Margetan, D. Utrata, and I.E. Anderson, 2014, “NDE for Adding Value to Materials from Metal Powder Processing,” Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials – 2014, Proceed-ings of the 2014 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials,Orlando, Florida, compiled by R.A. Chernenkoff and W.B. James, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Part 11, (pages 11.1–15), pp. 1944–1959.
Carroll, B.E., T.A. Palmer, and A.M. Beese, 2015, “Anisotropic Tensile Behavior of Ti–6Al–4V Components Fabricated with Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 87, pp. 309–320.
Chang, I., and Y. Zhao, 2013, Advances in Powder Metallurgy: Properties, Processing, and Applications, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Collins, P.C., D.A. Brice, P. Samimi, I. Ghamarian, and H.L. Fraser, 2016, “Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials,” Annual Review of Materials Research, Vol. 46, pp. 63–91.
Energetics Incorporated, 2013, Measurement Science Roadmap for Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing, Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland.
Everton, S., P. Dickens, C. Tuck, and B. Dutton, 2015, “Evaluation of Laser Ultrasonic Testing for Inspection of Metal Additive Manufacturing,” Proceedings Vol. 9353: Laser 3D Manufacturing II, SPIE LASE, San Francisco, California.
Everton, Sarah K., Matthias Hirsch, Petros Stravroulakis, Richard K. Leach, and Adam T. Clare, 2016, “Review of In-situ Process Monitoring and In-situ Metrology for Metal Additive Manufacturing, Materials & Design, Vol. 95, pp. 431–445.
Fielding, J., A. Davis, B. Bouffard, M. Kinsella, T. Delgado, J. Wilczynski, K. Marchese, and I. Wing, 2016, Department of Defense Additive Manufacturing Roadmap, US Department of Defense, Washington, DC.
Gockel, J., J. Fox, J. Beuth, and R. Hafley, 2015, “Integrated Melt Pool and Microstructure Control for Ti–6Al–4V Thin Wall Additive Manufac-turing,” Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 912–916.
Gong, X., J. Lydon, K. Cooper, and K. Chou, 2014, “Beam Speed Effects on Ti–6Al–4V Microstructures in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing,” Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 29. No. 17, pp. 1951–1959.
Krauss, H., T. Zeugner, and M.F. Zaeh, 2015, “Thermographic Process Monitoring in Powderbed Based Additive Manufacturing,” AIP Conference Proceedings, 41st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestruc-tive Evaluation: Vol. 34, Boise, Idaho, doi: 10.1063/1.4914608.
Lee, Y.S., and D.F. Farson, 2016, “Surface Tension-Powered Build Dimen-sion Control in Laser Additive Manufacturing Process,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 85, No. 5–8, pp. 1035–1044.
Liang, Y.-J., D. Liu, and H.-M.Wang, 2014, “Microstructure and Mechan-ical Behavior of Commercial Purity Ti/Ti–6Al–2Zr–1Mo–1V Structurally Graded Material Fabricated by Laser Additive Manufacturing,” Scripta Materialia, Vol. 74, pp. 80–83.
Liu, F., X. Lin, G. Yang, M. Song, J. Chen, and W. Huang, 2011, “Microstructure and Residual Stress of Laser Rapid Formed Inconel 718 Nickel-Base Superalloy,” Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 208–213.
Liu, Q.C., J. Elambasseril, S.J. Sun, M. Leary, M. Brandt, and P.K. Sharp, 2014, “The Effect of Manufacturing Defects on the Fatigue Behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V Specimens Fabricated Using Selective Laser Melting,” Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 891–892, pp. 1519–1524.
Mantri, S.A., T. Alam, D. Choudhuri, C.J. Yannetta, C.V. Mikler, P.C. Collins, and R. Banerjee, 2017, “The Effect of Boron on the Grain Size and Texture in Additively Manufactured b-Ti Alloys,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 52, No. 20, pp. 12455–12466.
Marya, M., V. Singh, S. Marya, and J.Y. Hascoet, 2015, “Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 1654–1665.
Meier, H., and C. Haberland, 2008, “Experimental Studies on Selective Laser Melting of Metallic Parts,” Materialwissenschaft Und Werkstofftechnik, Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 665–670.
Moroni, G., W.P. Syam, and S. Petro, 2014, “Towards Early Estimation of Part Accuracy in Additive Manufacturing,” Procedia CIRP, Vol. 21, pp. 300–305.
Murgau, C.C., 2016, “Microstructure Model for Ti-6Al-4V used in Simula-tion of Additive Manufacturing,” Doctoral thesis, Luleå University of Technology.
Ng, G.K.L., A.E.W. Jarfors, G. Bi, and H.Y. Zheng, 2009, “Porosity Forma-tion and Gas Bubble Retention in Laser Metal Deposition,” Applied Physics A, Vol. 97, p. 641.
Rangaswamy, P., M.L. Griffith, M.B. Prime, T.M. Holden, R.B. Rogge, J.M. Edwards, and R.J. Sebring, 2005, “Residual Stresses in LENS® Components using Neutron Diffraction and Contour Method,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 399, No. 1–2, pp. 72–83.
Scharowsky, T., V. Juechter, R.F. Singer, and C. Körner, 2015, “Influence of the Scanning Strategy on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Selective Electron Beam Melting of Ti–6Al–4V,” Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 1573–1578.
Seifi, M., A. Salem, J. Beuth, O. Harrysson, and J.J. Lewandowski, 2016, “Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufac-turing,” JOM, Vol. 68, No. 3, pp. 747–764.
Shamsaei, N., A. Yadollahi, L. Bian, S.M. Thompson, 2015, “An Overview of Direct Laser Deposition for Additive Manufacturing; Part II: Mechanical Behavior, Process Parameter Optimization and Control,” Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 8, pp. 12–35.
Sharples, S.D., M. Clark, and M.G. Somekh, 2006, “Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy for Fast Noncontact Imaging of Material Microstructure,” Optics Express, Vol. 14, No. 22, pp. 10435–10440.
Sharratt, B.M., 2015, “Non-Destructive Techniques and Technologies for Qualification of Additive Manufactured Parts and Processes: A Literature Review,” Contract Report DRDC-RDDC-2015-C035, Department of National Defence of Canada, retrieved from http://cradpdf.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc200/p801800_A1b.pdf on 20 February 2018.
Slotwinski, J.A., and E.J. Garboczi, 2014, “Porosity of Additive Manufac-turing Parts for Process Monitoring,” AIP Conference Proceedings, 40th Review of Progress in Quantitative Non-Destructive Evaluation, Baltimore, Maryland, doi: 10.1063/1.4864957.
Slotwinski, J.A., and E.J. Garboczi, 2015, “Metrology Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing Powders,” JOM, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 538–543.
Slotwinski, J., and S. Moylan, 2015, “Applicability of Existing Materials Testing Standards for Additive Manufacturing Materials,” in Additive Manufacturing Materials: Standards, Testing and Applicability, ed. Lillian White, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, NY.
Smith, C. J., F. Derguti, E. Hernandez Nava, M. Thomas, S. Tammas-Williams, S. Gulizia, D. Fraser, and I. Todd, 2016a, “Dimensional Accuracy of Electron Beam Melting (EBM) Additive Manufacture with Regard to Weight Optimized Truss Structures,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 229, pp. 128–138.
Smith, R.J., M. Hirsch, R. Patel, W. Li, A.T. Clare, and S.D. Sharples, 2016b, “Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy for Selective Laser Melting,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 236, pp. 93–102.
Taheri, H., M.R. Mohammad Shoaib, L. Koester, T.A. Bigelow, P.C. Collins, and L.J. Bond, 2017, “Powder Based Additive Manufacturing - A Review of Types of Defects, Generation Mechanisms, Detection, Property Evaluation and Metrology,” International Journal of Additive and Subtractive Materials Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 172–209.
Thompson, A., I. Maskery, and R.K. Leach, 2016, “X-ray Computed Tomography for Additive Manufacturing: A Review,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 7, doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/27/7/072001.
Vastola, G., G. Zhang, Q.X. Pei, and Y.-W. Zhang, 2016, “Controlling of Residual Stress in Additive Manufacturing of Ti6Al4V by Finite Element Modeling,” Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 12, Part B, pp. 231–239.
Waller, J.M., B.H. Parker, K.L. Hodges, E.R. Burke, and J.L. Walker, 2014, “Nondestructive Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing State-of-the-Disci-pline Report,” Report/Patent Number: NASA/TM-2014-218560, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA.
Wang, L., S.D. Felicelli, and P. Pratt, 2008, “Residual Stresses in LENS-Deposited AISI 410 Stainless Steel Plates,” Materials Science and Engi-neering: A, Vol. 496, No. 1–2, pp. 234–241.
Wilby, A.J., and D.P. Neale, 2009, “Defects Introduced into Metals during Fabrication and Service,” in Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III, ed. Rees D. Rawlings, EOLSS Publications, Paris, France, pp. 48–75.
Zhong, C., T. Biermann, A. Gasser, and R. Poprawe, 2015, “Experimental Study of Effects of Main Process Parameters on Porosity, Track Geometry, Deposition Rate, and Powder Efficiency for High Deposition Rate Laser Metal Deposition,” Journal of Laser Applications, Vol. 27, No. 4, doi: 10.2351/1.492335.
Zhu, G., D. Li, A. Zhang, G. Pi, and Y. Tang, 2012, “The Influence of Laser and Powder Defocusing Characteristics on the Surface Quality in Laser Direct Metal Deposition,” Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 349–356.
150 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares