Measuring moisture content and its distribution in walls is a key factor in preventing detriment that water might cause. Although several techniques exist for the measurement of moisture content in buildings, most of them are not suitable to be used in cultural heritage constructions since they are based on procedures that can impair the valuable surfaces of the walls. Classical moisture measurement techniques, in fact, require sample taking, hole drilling, and probe insertion. All these actions might be more harmful than the consequences of possible water presence inside the masonry. For this reason, most of the research effort is directed toward developing completely noninvasive sensors (for example, superficial probes) and techniques (for example, remote sensing) to be used freely on surfaces, which may also be covered by paintings, without risking any damage. This paper presents an overview of current moisture measurement practices, examining nondestructive techniques and, in particular, noninvasive ones, for in-situ measurement of water content.
Agliata, R., T.A. Bogaard, R. Greco, L. Mollo, E.C. Slob, and S.C. Steele-Dunne, 2018, “Non-invasive Estimation of Moisture Content in Tuff Bricks by GPR,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 160, pp. 698–706.
Agliata, R., L. Mollo, and R. Greco, 2016, “Use of TDR to Compare Rising Damp in Three Tuff Walls Made with Different Mortars,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 4, 04016262.
Alwis, L., T. Sun, and K.T.V. Grattan, 2013, “Optical Fibre-Based Sensor Technology for Humidity and Moisture Measurement: Review of Recent Progress,” Measurement, Vol. 46, No. 10, pp. 4052–4074.
ASTM, 2011, ASTM D4944 – 11: Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester, ASTM Interna-tional, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
Avdelidis, N.P., and A. Moropoulou, 2003, “Emissivity Considerations in Building Thermography,” Energy and Build, Vol. 35, No. 7, pp. 663–667.
Baxter, L.K., 1997, Capacitive Sensors: Design and Applica-tion, IEEE Press, Piscataway, New Jersey.
Binda, L., T. Squarcina, and R. Van Hees, 1996, “Determina-tion of Moisture Content in Masonry Materials: Calibration of Some Direct Methods,” in Proceedings of the Interna-tional Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Berlin, 30 September–4 October, ed. J. Riederer, Vol. 1, Moller Druck und Verlag, pp. 423–436.
Binda, L., C. Colla, and M.C. Forde, 1994, “Identification of Moisture Capillarity in Masonry Using Digital Impulse Radar,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 101–107.
Binda, L., 2005, “MD. E.1: Determination of Moisture Distri-bution and Level Using Radar in Masonry Built with Regular Units,” Materials and Structures, Vol. 38, pp. 283–288.
Binda, L., M. Lualdi, A. Saisi, and L. Zanzi, 2011, “Radar Investigation as a Complementary Tool for the Diagnosis of Historic Masonry Buildings,” International Journal of Mate-rials and Structural Integrity, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1–25.
Bison, P., G. Cadelano, L. Capineri, D. Capitani, U. Casellato, P. Faroldi, E. Grinzato, N. Ludwig, R. Olmi, S. Priori, N. Proietti, E. Rosina, R. Ruggeri, A. Sansonetti, L. Soroldoni, and M. Valentini, 2011, “Limits and Advantages of Different Techniques for Testing Moisture Content in Masonry,” Mate-rials Evaluation, Vol. 69, No. 1, pp. 111–116.
Blümich, B., F. Casanova, J. Perlo, F. Presciutti, C. Anselmi, and B. Doherty, 2010, “Non-invasive Testing of Art and Cultural Heritage by Mobile NMR,” Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 761–770.
Brenizer, J.S., 2013, “A Review of Significant Advances in Neutron Imaging from Conception to the Present,” Physics Procedia, Vol. 43, pp. 10–20.
Brown, J. P., and W.B. Rose, 1996, “Humidity and Moisture in Historic Buildings: The Origins of Building and Object Conservation,” APT Bulletin: The Journal of Preservation Technology, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 12–23.
Bucurescu, D., and I. Bucurescu, 2011, “Non-destructive Measurement of Moisture in Building Materials by Compton Scattering of Gamma Rays,” Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 61–75.
Camuffo D., and C. Bertolin, 2012, “Towards Standardisa-tion of Moisture Content Measurement in Cultural Heritage Materials,” E-preservation science, Morana RTD d.o.o., Slovenia.
Casieri, C., L. Senni, M. Romagnoli, U. Santamaria, and
F. De Luca, 2004, “Determination of Moisture Fraction in Wood by Mobile NMR Device,” Journal of Magnetic Reso-nance, Vol. 171, No. 2, pp. 364–372.
Cerný, R., 2009, “Time-Domain Reflectometry Method and Its Application for Measuring Moisture Content in Porous Materials: A Review,” Measurement, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 329–336.
Chudek, J.A., G. Hunter, M.R. Jones, S.N. Scrimgeour, P.C. Hewlett, and A.B. Kudryavtsev, 2000, “Aluminium-27 Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Chloride Binding in Portland Cement and Blends,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 35, No. 17, pp. 4275–4288.
Di Tullio, V., N. Proietti, G. Gentile, E. Giani, D. Poggi, and D. Capitani, 2012, “Unilateral NMR: A Noninvasive Tool for Monitoring In Situ the Effectiveness of Intervention to Reduce the Capillary Raise of Water in an Ancient Deterio-rated Wall Painting,” International Journal of Spectroscopy, Vol. 2012, Article ID 494301.
Di Tullio, V., N. Proietti, M. Gobbino, D. Capitani, R. Olmi, S. Priori, C. Riminesi, and E. Giani, 2010, “Non-destructive Mapping of Dampness and Salts in Degraded Wall Paintings in Hypogeous Buildings: The Case of St. Clement at Mass Fresco in St. Clement Basilica, Rome,” Analytical and Bioan-alytical Chemistry, Vol. 396, No. 5, pp. 1885–1896.
Dong, J., R. Agliata, S. Steele-Dunne, O. Hoes, T. Bogaard, R. Greco, and N. van de Giesen, 2017, “The Impacts of Heating Strategy on Soil Moisture Estimation Using Actively Heated Fiber Optics,” Sensors, Vol. 17, No. 9, doi: 10.3390/s17092102.
Ernst, R.R., G. Bodenhausen, and A. Wokaun, 1987, Princi-ples of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimen-sions, International Series of Monographs on Chemistry, Book 14, Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Ferreira, D., I. Cuiñas, R.F. Caldeirinha, and T.R. Fernandes, 2014, “A Review on the Electromagnetic Characterisation of Building Materials at Micro- and Millimetre Wave Frequen-cies,” 2014 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 6–11 April 2014, The Hague, Nether-lands, pp. 145-149, doi: 10.1109/EuCAP.2014.6901713.
Fidríková, D., V. Greif, P. Dieška, V. Štofanik, L. Kubicˇár, and J. Vlcˇko, 2013, “Monitoring of the Temperature–Moisture Regime in St. Martin’s Cathedral Tower in Bratislava,” Envi-ronmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 69, No. 4, pp. 1481–1489.
Gardner, W., and D. Kirkham, 1952, “Determination of Soil Moisture by Neutron Scattering,” Soil Science, Vol. 73, No. 5, pp. 391–401.
Ghandehari, M., C.S. Vimer, I. Ioannou, A. Sidelev, W. Jin, and P. Spellane, 2012, “In-Situ Measurement of Liquid Phase Moisture in Cement Mortar,” NDT & E International, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 162–168.
Gummerson, R.J., C. Hall, W.D. Hoff, R. Hawkes, G.N. Holland, and W.S. Moore, 1979, “Unsaturated Water Flow within Porous Materials Observed by NMR Imaging,” Nature, Vol. 281, No. 5726, pp. 56–57.
Hansen, K.K., S.K. Jensen, L. Gerward, and K. Singh, 1999, “Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry for the Simultaneous Determination of Density and Moisture Content in Porous Structural Materials,” Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, Gothenburg, Sweden, pp. 281–288, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola (Chalmers University of Technology).
Harriman, L., 1995, “Drying and Measuring Moisture in Concrete—Part II,” Materials Performance, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 55–59.
Hasted, J.B., and M.A. Shah, 1964, “Microwave Absorption by Water in Building Materials,” British Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 825.
Hauschild, T., and F. Menke, 1998, “Moisture Measurement in Masonry Walls Using a Non-invasive Reflectometer,” Elec-tronics Letters, Vol. 34, No. 25, pp. 2413–2414.
Healy, W.M., 2003, “Moisture Sensor Technology: A Summary of Techniques for Measuring Moisture Levels in Building Envelopes,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 109, No. 1, pp. 232–242.
Healy, W.M., S. Luo, M. Evans, Y. Liu, W. Healy, A. Sucheta, and Y. Liu, 2003, “Development of an Optical Fibre-Based Moisture Sensor for Building Envelopes,” Proceedings 24th AIVC Conference and BETEC Conference on Ventilation, Humidity Control and Energy, pp. 277–282.
Hoła, J., Z. Matkowski, K. Schabowicz, J. Sikora, K. Nita, and S. Wójtowicz, 2012, “Identification of Moisture Content in Brick Walls by Means of Impedance Tomography,” COMPEL -The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 1774–1792.
Justnes, H., K. Bryhn-Ingebrigtsen, and G.O. Rosvold, 1994, “Neutron Radiography: An Excellent Method of Measuring Water Penetration and Moisture Distribution in Cementi-tious Materials,” Advances in Cement Research, Vol. 6, No. 22, pp. 67–72.
Kaya, M., P. Sahay, and C. Wang, 2013, “Reproducibly Reversible Fibre Loop Ringdown Water Sensor Embedded in Concrete and Grout for Water Monitoring,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 176, pp. 803–810.
Kubicˇár, Ľ., V. Vretenár, V. Štofanik, and V. Bohácˇ, 2010, “Hot-Ball Method for Measuring Thermal Conductivity,” International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 31, No. 10, pp. 1904–1918.
Kubicˇár, L’., J. Hudec, D. Fidríková, P. Dieška, and M. Vitkovicˇ, 2015, “Effects in Monitoring of the Thermal Moisture Regime of Cultural Objects Located in Different Climate Conditions,” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 1126, pp. 93–98.
Kumaran, M. K., and M. Bomberg, 1985, “A Gamma-Spectrometer for Determination of Density Distribution and Moisture Distribution in Building Materials,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washington, DC, 15–18 April, 1985, pp. 485–490, National Research Council Canada, Division of Building Research.
Kurz, F., and H. Sgarz, 2015, “Measurement of Moisture Content in Building Materials Using Radar Technology,” International Symposium on Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering (NDT-CE), Berlin, Germany.
Kylili, A., P.A. Fokaides, P. Christou, and S.A. Kalogirou, 2014, “Infrared Thermography (IRT) Applications for Building Diagnostics: A Review,” Applied Energy, Vol. 134, pp. 531–549.
Le Feunteun, S., O. Diat, A. Guillermo, A. Poulesquen, and R. Podor, 2011, “NMR 1D-Imaging of Water Infiltration into Mesoporous Matrices,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 443–455.
Leung, C. K., K.T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou,J. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H.C. Wu, and M. Imai, 2015, “Optical Fibre Sensors for Civil Engineering Applications,” Materials and Structures, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 871–906.
Maierhofer, C., and J. Wöstmann, 1998, “Investigation of Dielectric Properties of Brick Materials as a Function of Moisture and Salt Content Using a Microwave Impulse Technique at Very High Frequencies,” NDT & E International, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 259–263.
McCann, D.M., and M.C. Forde, 2001, “Review of NDT Methods in the Assessment of Concrete and Masonry Structures,” NDT & E International, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 71–84.
Minardo, A., E. Catalano, L. Zeni, R. Agliata, R. Greco, and L. Mollo, 2016, “Measurement of Moisture Content in Masonry Materials by Active Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors,” 18th Italian National Conference on Photonic Technologies (Fotonica 2016), 6–8 June, Rome, Italy, doi: 10.1049/cp.2016.0916.
Mollo, L., and R. Greco, 2011, “Moisture Measurements in Masonry Materials by Time Domain Reflectometry,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 441–444.
Moon, H.J., S.H. Ryu, and J.T. Kim, 2014, “The Effect of Moisture Transportation on Energy Efficiency and IAQ in Residential Buildings,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 75, pp. 439–446.
Nielsen, A.F., 1972, “Gamma-Ray-Attenuation Used for Measuring the Moisture Content and Homogeneity of Porous Concrete,” Building Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 257–263.
Njoku, E.G., and J.-A. Kong, 1977, “Theory for Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Near-Surface Soil Moisture,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 82, No. 20, pp. 3108–3118.
Oligschläger, D., S. Waldow, A. Haber, W. Zia, and B. Blümich, 2015, “Moisture Dynamics in Wall Paintings Monitored by Single-Sided NMR,” Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 48–57.
Olmi, R., M. Bini, A. Ignesti, S. Priori, C. Riminesi, and A. Felici, 2006, “Diagnostics and Monitoring of Frescoes Using Evanescent-Field Dielectrometry,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 17, No. 8, p. 2281.
Park, S.C., 1996, “Holding the Line, Controlling Unwanted Moisture in Historic Buildings,” Preservation Briefs 39, Technical Preservation Services, National Park Service, Washington, DC.
Pel, L., K. Kopinga, and H. Brocken, 1996, “Determination of Moisture Profiles in Porous Building Materials by NMR,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 14, Nos. 7–8, pp. 931–932.
Pel L., H. Huinink, K. Kopinga, R.P.J. van Hees, and O.C.G. Adan, 2004, “Efflorescence Pathway Diagram: Understanding Salt Weathering,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 309–313.
Perfect, E., C.-L. Cheng, M. Kang, H.Z. Bilheux, J.M. Lamanna, M.J. Gragg, and D.M. Wright, 2014, “Neutron Imaging of Hydrogen-Rich Fluids in Geomaterials and Engineered Porous Media: A Review,” Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 129, pp. 120–135.
Phillipson, M.C., P.H. Baker, M. Davies, Z. Ye, A. McNaughtan, G.H. Galbraith, and R.C. McLean, 2007, “Moisture Measurement in Building Materials: An Overview of Current Methods and New Approaches,” Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 303–316.
Podebradska, J., J. Madera, V. Tydlitat, P. Rovnanikova, and R. Cerny, 2000, “Determination of Moisture Content in Hydrating Cement Paste Using the Calcium Carbide Method,” Ceramics Silikaty, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 35–38.
Proietti, N., D. Capitani, and V. Di Tullio, 2018, “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, a Powerful Tool in Cultural Heritage,” Magnetochemistry, Vol. 4, No. 1, 11.
Reijonen, H., and S. Pihlajavaara, 1972, “On the Determination by Neutron Radiography of the Thickness of the Carbonated Layer of Concrete Based Upon Changes in Water Content,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 607–615.
Roels, S., T. van Besien, J. Carmeliet, and M. Wevers, 2003, “X-ray Attenuation Technique for the Analysis of Moisture Flow in Porous Building Materials,” Research in Building Physics: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Building Physics 14–18 September 2003, Antwerpen, Belgium, eds. J. Carmeliet, H. Hens, and G. Vermeir, AA Balkema Publishers, Lisse, pp. 151–157.
Rosina, E., and J. Spodek, 2003, “Using Infrared Thermography to Detect Moisture in Historic Masonry: A Case Study in Indiana,” APT Bulletin, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 11–16.
Sandrolini, F., and E. Franzoni, 2006, “An Operative Protocol for Reliable Measurements of Moisture in Porous Materials of Ancient Buildings,” Building and Environment, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1372–1380.
Sbartaï, Z.M., S. Laurens, J.P. Balayssac, G. Ballivy, and G. Arliguie, 2006, “Effect of Concrete Moisture on Radar Signal Amplitude,” Materials Journal, Vol. 103, No. 6, pp. 419–426.
Senin, S.F., and R. Hamid, 2016, “Ground Penetrating Radar Wave Attenuation Models for Estimation of Moisture and Chloride Content in Concrete Slab,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 106, pp. 659–669.
Stojanovicˇ, G., M. Radovanovicˇ, M. Malešev, and V. Radonjanin, 2010, “Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor,” Sensors, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 4270–4280.
Suchorab, Z., 2013, “Laboratory Measurements of Moisture in a Model Redbrick Wall Using the Surface TDR Probe,” Proceedings of ECOpole, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 171–176.
Tanaka, T., S. Avramidis, and S. Shida, 2009, “Evaluation of Moisture Content Distribution in Wood by Soft X-ray Imaging,” Journal of Wood Science, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 69–73.
UNESCO, 2018, “World Heritage List,” https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/, accessed 20 September 2018.
UNI, 2003, UNI 11085:2003, Beni culturali - Materiali lapidei naturali ed artificiali - Determinazione del contenuto d’acqua: Metodo ponderale, [Cultural Heritage - Natural and Artificial Stones - Moisture Content Determination: Gravimetric Method] (in Italian).
UNI, 2004, UNI 11121:2004, Beni culturali - Materiali lapidei naturali ed artificiali - Determinazione in campo del contenuto di acqua con il metodo al carburo di calico [Cultural Heritage - Natural and Artificial Stones - In Field Water Content Determination by Calcium- Carbide Method] (in Italian).
UNI, 2017, UNI EN 16682:2017: Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Methods of Measurement of Moisture Content, or Water Content, in Materials Constituting Immovable Cultural Heritage, UNI Ente Italiano di Normazione, Milano, Lombardia, Italy.
Vun, R.Y., M.C. Bhardwaj, K. Hoover, J. Janowiak, J. Kimmel, and S. Worley, 2006, “Development of Non-contact Ultrasound as a Sensor for Wood Moisture Content,” Proceedings 9th European Conference for NDT, Berlin, 2006, pp. 1–7.
Wilson, P.J., 1999, “Accuracy of a Capacitance-Type and Three Resistance-Type Pin Meters for Measuring Wood Moisture Content,” Forest Products Journal, Vol. 49, No. 9, pp. 29–32.
Yeo, T.L., D. Eckstein, B. McKinley, L.F. Boswell, T. Sun, and K.T.V. Grattan, 2006, “Demonstration of a Fibre-Optic Sensing Technique for the Measurement of Moisture Absorption in Concrete,” Smart Materials and Structure, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. N40–N45.
Zawisky, M., F. Hameed, E. Dyrnjaja, J. Springer, and A. Rohatsch, 2010, “Digitized Neutron Imaging with High Spatial Resolution at a Low Power Research Reactor: Applications to Steel and Rock Samples,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 268, No. 15, pp. 2446–2450.
Zhang, P., F.H. Wittmann, T.J. Zhao, E.H. Lehmann, and P. Vontobel, 2011, “Neutron Radiography, A Powerful Method to Determine Time-Dependent Moisture Distributions in Concrete,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 241, No. 12, pp. 4758–4766.
24 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares