Article Periodicals » Materials Evaluation » Article
Characteristics of Wave Propagation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds and Its Application in Ultrasonic TOFD Testing

The present study is aimed at enhancing the ability of ultrasonic time of flight diffraction (TOFD) testing on austenitic stainless welds through revealing characteristics of ultrasonic wave propagation in the welds. The angle between the wave beam and the columnar grain is the key factor that affects wave scattering and attenuation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the test signal can be enhanced when the angle is within a specific range. Both the higher wave amplitude and the required angle between the primary ultrasonic beam and columnar grain in the weld region are easy to obtain through adjusting the probe’s center separation when the probes are arranged on the side of the weld root. However, the secondary wave is adopted to maintain testing requirements when the probes need to be put on the side of the weld crown because of inaccessibility on the side of the weld root. In the case of secondary wave testing, wave construction is so complicated that it is difficult to distinguish the diffracted wave in the testing signal of the secondary wave testing. Therefore, the wave propagation model for calculating the arrival time of wave echoes is also investigated to avoid wave confusion. Based on the revealing characteristics of wave propagation, either the primary wave or the secondary wave of the TOFD technique can be used to detect discontinuities in austenitic stainless welds.


Bijalwan, Ashish, 2014, “Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Inspection,” American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 39–44.

Chassignole, B., R. El Guerjouma, M.-A. Ploix, and T. Fouquet, 2010, “Ultrasonic and Structural Characterization of Anisotropic Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds: Towards a Higher Reliability in Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing,” NDT & E International, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 273–282.

Chassignole, B., V. Duwig, M.-A. Ploix, P. Guy, and R. El Guerjouma, 2009, “Modelling the Attenuation in the ATHENA Finite Elements Code for the Ultrasonic Testing of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 49, No. 8, 653–58.

Doerr, Christoph, Jin-Yeon Kim, Preet Singh, James J. Wall, and Laurence J. Jacobs, 2017, “Evaluation of Sensitization in Stainless Steel 304 and 304L Using Nonlinear Rayleigh Waves,” NDT & E International, Vol. 88, pp. 17–23.

Gang, T., and D. Z. Chi, 2007, “Novel Approach to Enhancement of Ultrasonic TOFD B-scan Image for Measurement of Weld Crack,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 87–93.

Halkjær, S., M.P. Sørensen, and W. D. Kristensen, 2000, “The Propagation of Ultrasound in an Austenitic Weld,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 38, Nos. 1–8, pp. 256–261.

Jacques, F., F. Moreau, and E. Ginzel, 2003, “Ultrasonic Backscatter Sizing Using Phased Arrays—Developments in Tip Diffraction Flaw Sizing,” Insight, Vol. 45, No. 11, pp. 724–728.

Kemnitz, P., U. Richter, and H. Klüber, 1997, “Measurements of the Acoustic Field on Austenitic Welds: A Way to Higher Reliability in Ultrasonic Tests,” Nuclear Engingeering and Design, Vol. 174, No. 3, pp. 259–272.

Nath, S.K., Krishnan Balasubramaniam, C.V. Krishnamurthy, and B.H. Narayana, 2010, “Reliability Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Inspection for Complex Geometry Components,” NDT & E International, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 152–162.

Ogilvy, J.A., 1986, “Ultrasonic Beam Profiles and Beam Propagation in an Austenitic Weld Using a Theoretical Ray Tracing Model,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 337–347.

Ploix, Marie-Aude, Philippe Guy, Bertrand Chassignole, Joseph Moysan, Gilles Corneloup, and Rachid El Guerjouma, 2014, “Measurement of Ultrasonic Scattering Attenuation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds: Realistic Input Data for NDT Numerical Modeling,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 54, No. 7, pp. 1729–1736.

Praveen, A., K. Vijayarekha, S.T. Abraham, and B. Venkatraman, 2013, “Signal Quality Enhancement Using Higher Order Wavelets for Ultrasonic TOFD Signals from Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 1288–1292.

Shakibi, B., Honarvar, M.D.C. Moles, J. Caldwell, and Anthony N. Sinclair, 2012, “Resolution Enhancement of Ultrasonic Defect Signals for Crack Sizing,” NDT & E International, Vol. 52, pp. 37–50.

Zippel, William J., José A. Pincheira, and Glenn A. Washer, 2000, “Crack Measurement in Steel Plates Using TOFD Method,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 75–82.

Usage Shares
Total Views
11 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage