Article Periodicals » Materials Evaluation » Article
AE Source Localization in a Steel Plate with the Dispersive A0 Mode based on the Cross-Correlation Technique and Time Reversal Principle

The accuracy of damage localization, especially the accurate determination of the time arrival difference, is important in the field of acoustic emission (AE) source localization. In this paper, we propose a new approach to localize an AE source with the dispersive A0 mode. For this approach, we analyzed the cross correlation of AE signals with a reference database and determined the time lag of A0 mode. The technique is carried out in a two-stage computational process. First, AE signals are used to construct the reference database and compensate for the dispersion of waves based on the time reversal principle. Second, the time arrival difference of the A0 mode is determined by the cross correlation of AE signals with the reference signals using the first threshold-crossing technique. A localization algorithm is carried out based on the triangulation technique. The proposed approach is conducted on a steel plate with three AE sensors coupling on the surface. Pencil-lead breaks are adopted to simulate AE sources. Results indicated that eight verification points were successfully localized with the maximum and minimum relative errors of 0.98% and 0.58%, respectively. Thus, this paper shows an optional technique to localize AE sources with the A0 mode, which is of significant importance.

References

Aljet, D., A. Chong, S. Wilcox, and K. Holford, 2012, “Acoustic Emission Source Location On a Large Plate-Like Structures Using a Local Triangular Sensor Array,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 30, pp. 91–102.

Barthorpe, R., K. Worden, M.T.H. Sultan, M. Eaton, R. Pullin, and K.M. Holford, 2012, “The Effect of Attenuation On the Identification of Impact Damage in CFRP Laminates,” AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1, pp. 698–706.

Chen, C., Y. Li, and F.G. Yuan, 2011, “Impact And Damage Location Detection On Plate-Like Structures Using Time-Reversal Method,” Struc-tural Health Monitoring 2011: Condition-based Maintenance and Intelligent Structures, Vol. 1, pp. 274–281.

Chen, C.L., Y.L. Li, and F.G. Yuan, 2012, “Impact Source Identification in Finite Isotropic Plates Using a Time-Reversal Method: Experimental Study,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp. 1052–1053.

Ciampa, F., and M. Meo, 2010, “A New Algorithm For Acoustic Emission Localization and Flexural Group Velocity Determination In Anisotropic Structures,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 41, No. 12, pp. 1777–1786.

Ciampa, F., and M. Meo, 2011, “Acoustic Emission Localization in Complex Dissipative Anisotropic Structures Using a One-Channel Recip-rocal Time Reversal Method,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 130, No. 1, pp. 168–175.

Draeger, C., and M. Fink, 1999, “One-Channel Time-Reversal In Chaotic Cavities: Theoretical Limits,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 105, No. 2, pp. 611–617.

Draeger, C., J.C. Aime, and M. Fink, 1999, “One-Channel Time-Reversal in Chaotic Cavities: Experimental Results,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 105, No. 2, pp. 618–625.

Ernst, R., and J. Dual, 2014, “Acoustic Emission Localization In Beams Based On Time Reversed Dispersion,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 1522–1533.

Fink, M., and C. Prada, 2001, “Acoustic Time-Reversal Mirrors,” Inverse Problems, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. R1–R38.

Geng R.S., 2006, “Modern Acoustic Emission Technique and Its Applica-tion in Aviation Industry,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 44, pp. E1025–29.

Grondel, S., C. Delebarre, J. Assaad, J.P. Dupuis, and L. Reithler, 2002,

“Fatigue Crack Monitoring of Riveted Aluminum Strap Joints by Lamb Wave Analysis and Acoustic Emission Measurement Techniques,” NDT & E International, Vol. 35, No. 3., pp. 137–146. 

Han, Z.Y., H.Y. Luo, J.W. Cao, and H.W. Wang, 2011, “Acoustic Emission During Fatigue Crack Propagation In a Micro-Alloyed Steel and Welds,” School of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 528, pp. 7751–7756.

Harb, M.S., and F.G. Yuan, 2015, “A Rapid, Fully Non-Contact, Hybrid System for Generating Lamb Wave Dispersion Curves,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 61, pp. 62–70.

He, J., and F.G. Yuan, 2016, “Lamb Wave-Based Subwavelength Damage Imaging Using the DORT-MUSIC Technique In Metallic Plates,” Structural Health Monitoring, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 65–80.

He, J., and F.G. Yuan, 2017, “Lamb-Wave-Based Two-Dimensional Areal Scan Damage Imaging Using Reverse-Time Migration With a Normalized Zero-Lag Cross-Correlation Imaging Condition,” Structural Health Moni-toring, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 444–457.

Ing, R. K., and M. Fink, 1996, “Time Recompression of Dispersive Lamb Waves Using a Time Reversal Mirror-Application to Flaw Detection in Thin Plates,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 1-2, pp. 659–63.

Ing, R.K., and M. Fink, 1998, “Time-Reversed Lamb Waves,” IEEE Trans-actions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 1032–1043.

Kaphle, M., 2012a, “Analysis of Acoustic Emission Data for Accurate Damage Assessment for Structural Health Monitoring Applications,” Queensland University of Technology, PhD Dissertation, Ch. 2.

Kaphle, M., 2012b, “Analysis of Acoustic Emission Data for Accurate Damage Assessment for Structural Health Monitoring Applications,” Queensland University of Technology, PhD Dissertation, Ch. 3.

Kim, J.H., Y.Y. Kim, Y. Park, and C.G. Kim, 2015, “Low-Velocity Impact Localization In a Stiffened Composite Panel Using a Normalized Cross-Correlation Method,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 24, No. 4, 

p. 045036.

Kishi, T., M. Enoki and H. Tsuda, 1991, “Interface and Strength in Ceramic Matrix Composites,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, 

Vol. 143, Nos. 1–2, pp. 103–110.

Kishimoto, K., H. Inoue, M. Hamada, and T. Shibuya, 1995, “Time Frequency Analysis of Dispersive Waves By Means Of Wavelet Trans-form,” Journal of Applied Mechanics-trans. ASME, Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 841–846.

Kundu, T., 2014, “Acoustic Source Localization,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 25–38.

Li, Q.F., Y. Wang, R.M. Liu, W. Gu, and F. Ao, 2015, “Ultrasonic Computed Tomography Imaging Method Of Concrete Materials Based on Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm,” Trans. Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 341–347.

Liu, S.T., L. Liu, and F.G. Yuan, 2011, “Defect Imaging Using Time-Reversal Technique,” Proceedings SPIE Smart Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, Vol. 7981, p. 79811R.

Liu, Z.H., H.T. Yu, C.F. He, and B. Wu, 2013a, “Delamination Damage Detection Of Laminated Composite Beams Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers,” Science China: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy, Vol. 56, No. 7, pp. 1269–1279.

Liu, Z.H., F.X. Yu, R. Wei, C.F. He, and B. Wu, 2013b, “Image Fusion Based On Single-Frequency Guided Wave Mode Signals for Structural Health Monitoring in Composite Plates,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 71, No. 12, pp. 1434–1443.

Liu, Z.H., Q.L. Xu, Y. Gong, C.F. He, and B. Wu, 2014, “A New Multi-channel Time Reversal Focusing Method for Circumferential Lamb Waves and Its Applications for Defect Detection in Thick-Walled Pipe With Large-Diameter,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 54, pp. 1967–1976.

Liu, Z.H., H.T. Yu, J.W. Fan, C.F. He, and B. Wu, 2015a, “Baseline-Free Delamination Inspection in Composite Plates by Synthesizing Non-Contact Air-Coupled Lamb Wave Scan Method and Virtual Time Reversal Algorithm,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 045014.

Liu, Z.H., J.W. Fan, Y.N. Hu, C.F. He, and B. Wu, 2015b, “Torsional Mode Magnetostrictive Patch Transducer Array Employing a Modified Planar Solenoid Array Coil for Pipe Inspection,” NDT & E International, Vol. 69, pp. 9–15.

Mohd, S., K.M. Holford, and R. Pullin, 2014, “Continuous Wavelet Trans-form Analysis and Modal Location Analysis Acoustic Emission Source Location For Nuclear Piping Growth Monitoring,” AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1584, No. 61, pp. 61–68.

Mostafapour, A., and S. Davoodi, 2015, “Continuous Leakage Location In Noisy Environment Using Modal and Wavelet Analysis With One AE Sensor,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 62, pp. 305–311.

Mustapha, S., Y. Lu, J.C. Li, and L. Ye, 2014, “Damage Detection in Rebar-Reinforced Concrete Beams Base On Time Reversal of Guided Waves,” Structural Health Monitoring, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 347–358.

Niri, E.D., and Salamone S., 2012, “A Probabilistic Framework for Acoustic Emission Source Localization in Plate-Like Structures,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 21, No. 3, p. 035009.

Park, H.W., S.B. Kim, and H. Sohn, 2009, “Understanding a Time Reversal Process in Lamb Wave Propagation,” Wave Motion, Vol. 46, No. 7, pp. 451–467.

Poggi, V., D. Fah, and D. Giardini, 2013, “Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 170, pp. 319–335.

Pullin, R., D.C. Carter, and M. Holford, 1999, “Damage Assessment in Steel Bridges,” Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 167, pp. 335–342.

Sedlak, P., Y. Hirose, and M. Enoki, 2013, “Acoustic Emission Localization In Thin Multi-Layer Plates Using First-Arrival Determination,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 636–649.

Sohn, H., H.W. Park, K.H. Law, and C.R. Farrar, 2007, “Damage Detection in Composite Plates by Using An Enhanced Time Reversal Method,” Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 141–151.

Tanter, M., J.L. Thomas, and M. Fink, 2000, “Time Reversal and the Inverse Filter,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 108, No. 1, pp. 223–34.

Wang, C.H., J.T. Rose, and F.K. Chang, 2004, “A Synthetic Time-Reversal Imaging Method for Structural Health Monitoring,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 415–423.

Watkins, R., and R. Jha, 2012, “A Modified Time Reversal Method For Lamb Wave Based Diagnostics of Composite Structures,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 31, pp. 345–354.

Wevers, M., 1997, “Listening To The Sound of Materials: Acoustic Emission For The Analysis Of Material Behavior,” NDT & E International, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 99–106.

Xiao, D.X, T. He, Q. Pan, X.D. Liu, J. Wang, and Y.C. Shan, 2014, “A Novel Acoustic Emission Beamforming Method With Two Uniform Linear Arrays On Plate-Like Structures,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 737–45.

Zarate, B. A., A. Pollock, S. Momeni, and O. Ley, 2015, “Structural Health Monitoring Of Liquid-Filled Tanks: A Bayesian Approach For Location Of Acoustic Emission Sources,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 24, No. 1, p. 015017.

Zhong, Y.T., S.F. Yuan, and L. Qiu, 2015, “Multi-Impact Source Localiza-tion On Aircraft Composite Structure Using Uniform Linear PZT Sensors Array,” Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 310–320.

Ziola, S.M., and M.R. Gorman, 1991, “Source Location in Thin Plates Using Cross-Correlation,” Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Vol. 90, No. 5, pp. 2551–2556.

Zitto, M. E., R. Piotrkowski, A. Gallego, F. Sagasta, and A. Benavent-Climent, 2015, “Damage Assessed by Wavelet Scale Bands and B-Value in Dynamical Tests of a Reinforced Concrete Slab Monitored With Acoustic Emission,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vols. 60–61, pp. 75–89.

Metrics
Usage Shares
Total Views
26 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
26
0 PDF Downloads
0
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage
26