The present study is an attempt to give an outline on detecting discontinuity formation in friction stir welding of 2024 aluminum alloy using X-ray radiography techniques. The concise overview of discontinuities formed during friction stir welding and its appearance in X-ray film has been illus-trated using images. The lack of material inside a weld joint, compared to the filled material in the joint, highly affects the color density of X-ray film. These differences in color density and shape shown on the X-ray film are used to find types and sizes of discontinuities. From the radiographic image, it was found that a decrease in welding speed reduces the shape and size of color intensity that shows a reduction of discontinuity size inside a welding joint. The literature review is used for analysis of discontinuity formation mechanism and its relationship with process parameters. The results obtained from the current study are compared with the literature study, and are found to strongly agree with previous studies.
Amin, E.S., “Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Evaluate Weld Defects of Nuclear Components,” Journal of Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2007, pp. 83–92.
ASTM, ASTM E94-04, Standard Guide for Radiographic Examination, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, 2010.
Caligulu, Ugur, Mahmut Yalcinoz, Mustafa Turkmen, and Serdar Mercan, “X-ray Radiography of AISI 4340-2205 Steels Welded by Friction Welding,” Materiali and Tehnologije, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2016a, pp. 39–45.
Caligulu, Ugur, Mustafa Acik, Mustafa Turkmen, and Ali Kaya, “Radiog-raphy Test of AISI 1010-Copper Alloys Welded by Friction Welding,” Sylwan, Vol. 160, No. 4, 2016b, pp. 468–479.
Das, B., S. Pal, and S. Bag, “Monitoring of Friction Stir Welding Process using Weld Image Information,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2016, pp. 317–324.
Dikbas, Halil, Ugur Caligulu, Mustafa Taskin, and Mustafa Turkmen, “X-Ray Radiography of Ti6Al4V Welded by Plasma Tungsten Arc (PTA) Welding,” Materials Testing, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2013, pp. 197–202.
Elangovan, K., and V. Balasubramanian, “Influences of Pin Profile and Rotational Speed of the Tool on the Formation of Friction Stir Processing Zone in AA2219 Aluminium Alloy,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 459, Nos. 1–2, 2007, pp. 7–18.
Esmaeili, A., M.K. Besharati Givi, and H.R. Zareie Rajani, “Investigation of Weld Defects in Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium to Brass by Radiography,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 17, No. 7, 2012, pp. 539–543.
Kah, Paul, Rajan, Richard, Martikainen, Jukka, and Suoranta, Raimo, “Investigation of Weld Defects in Friction-Stir Welding and Fusion Welding of Aluminium Alloys,” International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 26, 2015, pp. 1–10.
Kim, Y.G. , H. Fujii, T. Tsumura, T. Komazaki, and K. Nakata, “Three Defect Types in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Die Casting Alloy,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 415, Nos. 1–2, 2006, pp. 250–254.
Lakshminarayanan, A.K., S. Malarvizhi, and V. Balasubramanian, “Devel-oping Friction Stir Welding Window for AA2219 Aluminium Alloy,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 21, No. 11, 2011, pp. 2339–2347.
Lakshminarayanan, A.K., and V. Balasubramanian, “Comparison of RSM with ANN in Predicting Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded AA7039 Aluminium Alloy Joints,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2009, pp. 9–18.
Li, Xia-wei, Da-tong Zhang, Cheng Qiu, and Wen Zhang, “Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Pure Copper/1350 Aluminium Alloy Butt Joint by Friction Stir Welding,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 22, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1298–1306.
Mandache, C., D. Levesque, L. Dubourg, and P. Gougeon, “Non-destruc-tive Detection of Lack of Penetration Defects in Friction Stir Welds,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2012, pp. 295–303.
Park, Hwa Soon, Takahiro Kimura, Taichi Murakami, Yoshitaka Nagano, Kazuhiro Nakata, Masao Ushio, “Microstructures and Mechanical Proper-ties of Friction Stir Welds of 60% Cu–40% Zn Copper Alloy,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 371, Nos. 1–2, 2004, pp. 160–169.
Rajkumar, S., C. Muralidharan, and V. Balasubramanian, “Optimization of the Friction-stir-welding Process and Tool Parameters to Attain a Maximum Tensile Strength of AA7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Vol. 224, No. 8, 2010, 1175–1191.
Santos, Telmo G., Pedro Vilaça , Luís Rosado, Moisés Piedade, and Pedro M. Ramos, “Developments in NDT of Friction Stir Welding using Eddy Currents,” Proceedings European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing, Vol. 2, 2010, pp. 88–89.
Tabatabaeipour, M., J. Hettler, S. Delrue, and K. Van Den Abeele, “Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Examination of Root Defects in Friction Stir Welded Butt-Joints,” NDT & E International, Vol. 80, 2016, pp. 23–34.
Taskin, Mustafa, Ugur Caligulu Elazig, and Mustafa Turkmen, “X-Ray Tests of AISI 430 and 304 Stainless Steels and AISI 1010 Low Carbon Steel Welded by CO2 Laser Beam Welding,” Materials Testing, Vol. 53, Nos. 11–12, 2011, pp. 741–747.
272 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares