Progress in Nondestructive 3D Characterization and Modelling of Aerospace Composites
Conference: Publication Date: 4 May 2015
The route to lighter composite aerostructures requires advanced 3D non-destructive characterization methods to
provide confidence that the as-built structures conform to the design expectations. Whilst X-ray Micro-CT imaging
is an excellent non-destructive testing (NDT) method for 3D characterization, it can rarely be applied in production.
In its place, ultrasound is an ideal vehicle for exploring the detailed local response of a composite structure,
providing data that can be inverted to give 3D fiber direction, ply spacing, fiber volume fraction and 3D porosity
distribution. The first material property that must be determined to enable full characterization and materials
modelling of as-manufactured composite components is the vector field representing the fiber direction at every
point. Inversion methods have been developed for converting 3D NDT data sets into 3D profiles of material
properties. A study of ultrasonic analytic-signal propagation in composites has resulted in a novel method for
tracking plies and ply drops, in ultrasonic full-waveform data sets. This paper presents methods for tracking the 3D
orientation of fiber tows in the plies throughout a laminated composite structure and examples of finite-element
models built directly from this NDT information.
- Nikishkov, G., Y. Nikishkov, and A. Makeev, “Finite element mesh generation for composites with ply waviness based on X-ray computed tomography.” Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 58, pp. 35–44, 2013.
- Smith, R.A. and B. Clarke, “Ultrasonic C-scan determination of ply stacking sequence in carbon-fiber composites,” Insight – Journal of The British Institute of NDT, Vol. 36, No. 10, pp. 741-747, 1994.
- Hsu D., D. Fei, and Z. Liu, “Ultrasonically mapping the ply layup of composite laminates,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 60, No. 9, pp. 1099-1106, 2002.
- Smith, R.A., “Use of 3D ultrasound data sets to map the localised properties of fiber-reinforced composites.” PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, July 2010.
- Smith, R.A., L.J. Nelson, M.J. Mienczakowski, and R.E. Challis, “Automated analysis and advanced defect characterisation from ultrasonic scans of composites.” Insight – J. Brit. Inst. NDT, Vol. 51(5), pp. 82-87, 2009.
- Nelson, L.J and R.A. Smith, “Three-dimensional fiber-orientation characterisation in monolithic carbon-fiber composites.” Proc. European Conference on NDT, Prague, October 2014.
- Hashin, Z., “On elastic behaviour of fiber reinforced materials of arbitrary transverse phase geometry,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, Vol. 13, pp. 119-134, 1965.
- Hashin, Z., “Analysis of properties of fiber composites with anisotropic constituents,” J. Appl. Mech., Vol. 46, pp. 546–550, 1979.
- Smith, R.A., L.J. Nelson, N. Xie, C. Fraij, and S.R. Hallett, “Progress in 3D characterisation and modelling of monolithic carbon-fiber composites.” Insight – J. Brit. Inst. NDT, Vol. 57 (3), pp. 131-139, March 2015.
- Dassault systemès, Abaqus 6.12 User’s Manual, 2012.
- Smith, R.A., N. Xie, L.J. Nelson, and S.R. Hallett, “Modelling the mechanical properties of as-manufactured composite components based on 3D non-destructive characterisation.” Proc. European Conf. on NDT, 2014.
235 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares